Diabetes in girls presents special risk factors as women are at particular risk of certain complications. Since the 1990s there has been a 10-fold increase in the number of cases of type 2 diabetes in adolescents, possibly due to increased rates of obesity. In 2003 the International Diabetes Federation Consensus declared an “epidemic” of obesity, lack of exercise, and insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). The prevalence of obesity among adolescents in 1999-2000 was 15.3% ages 6-11 and 15.5% ages 12-19. Of particular concern is the relationship between childhood obesity and the onset of insulin resistance in adulthood. There are about 61,500 girls under 20 in the U.S. with type 1 diabetes with most diabetic teenage girls (10-19 years old) suffering from type 1. By the age of 20, 40-60% of people with diabetes will have retinopathy, with girls at the highest risk of the most severe form.